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OEE Loss (by Object) Shift Report with Pie Chart

November 24th, 2008 No comments

 

OEE Loss (by Object) Shift Report with Pie Chart

A standard Provideam Loss Report might appear like the example in figure 1 below.


Fig. 1 OEE Loss by Object Report

 

In this report we see a breakdown of the losses for AssemblyMC1 for the Day Shift on the 2nd of October. The losses are displayed both in graphical

and tabular format. The upper table shows a list of the losses sorted in descending order of magnitude of the Time function. The lower table shows a

selected list of functions calculated over the shift. These ‘overall’ functions help to put the loss figures in context.

 

To help us get a perspective on the actually losses we have included the OEE Time in this report (the green pie segment). This is the total time

that the machine was running at its optimum rate. It is a feature of Provideam that you can specify whether to include or exclude categories of loss

on your reports.

 

To create a report like that shown in figure 1 above, follow these steps;

Step 1: Click on the ‘New Report’ icon
Step 2: Select the OEE Loss (Group by Object) option

 


Fig. 2 OEE Loss by Object Report – New OEE Loss Report

Step 3: Click Next to move on to the Area/Machine (Object 1) selection.
Step 4: Select AssemblyMC1 from the list of available Machine items.

 


Fig. 3 OEE Loss by Object Report – Select Object

Step 5: Click Next to move on to name the Object.

By default the Report Wizard enters the Object Description shown below. You may edit this if you wish.

 


Fig. 4 OEE Loss by Object Report – Edit Object Description

Step 6: Click Next to move on to on to the Loss selection.
Step 7: Choose Level 1 Loss and select All from the list of available Level 1 Loss items. This option results in all time, from OEE Time to Planned

Downtime, being included in the Loss Report.
Step 8: Check Show for Level 3 Desc. This results in a breakdown by Level 3 Description on the final report.

 


Fig. 5 OEE Loss by Object Report – Select Loss

Step 9: Click Next to move on to Functions selection.
Step 10: Select Time from the list of available Loss Function items.
Step 11: Select PlannedOpT, UpTime, Downtime, Good Parts and Defect Parts from the list of available Production Function items.
Step 12: Use the Up and Down buttons to order the Functions. They will appear in the final report in the order  you set here.
Step 13: Check the Show Grand Totals checkbox.

 


Fig. 6 OEE Loss by Object Report – Select Functions

Step 14: Click Next to move on to Period selection.
Step 15: Select the Shift period option.

 


Fig. 7 OEE Loss by Object Report – Select Period

Step 16: Click Next to move on to the final screen in the Report Wizard.
Step 17: Select the Pie Chart Graph option.
Step 18: Check the Show Graph option.
Step 19: Click Run Report to run this Report.

You may save the report definition as a Report Template at this stage. Report Templates can be shared with other users and also scheduled for

automatic delivery by email.

 


Fig. 8 OEE Loss by Object Report – Select Graph Style

Step 20: Select a Date and Shift.

 


Fig. 9 OEE Loss by Object Report – Select Report Period Parameters

Step 21: Click Run Report to generate a report preview.

 


Fig. 10 OEE Loss by Object Report – Preview Shift Report
 

Modern Production Metrics – OEE

November 19th, 2008 No comments

  

Overall Equipment Effectivity:

OEE, Overall Equipment Effectivity, is the most popular KPI, Key Performance Indicator, in manufacturing productivity philosophies such as WCM, World Class Manufacturing, TPM, Total Productive Maintenance etc.

OEE is a measure of a machine’s effectiveness based on six general loss classifications, i.e. Breakdowns, Changeovers, Short Stops, Slow Running(Speed Losses), Yield Losses and Start-up Losses. These losses are grouped under the general headings; Availability Losses, Performance Losses and Quality Losses as described below.

Put simply, OEE is a measure of the amount of time a machine is actually producing good product compared to the time it should be producing good product (the total planned production time for that machine). Any difference between these two measures of time is considered a loss.

Figure 1 shows an OEE Level 1 Pie Chart Report which divides the loss into three groups, Availability, Performance and Quality.

 

Fig. 1 OEE Level 1 Pie Chart Report (click image to see full size).

The Six Losses are listed and categorized as follows:   

  • Availability Losses.
    Availability Loss is a general term for any loss which causes a machine to be unavailable to produce good products.

    1. Breakdowns:
      When a machine has broken down it is unavailable for production. In some OEE systems a machine is only considered to be ‘broken down’ if a technician is required to restart the machine. However this would require manual classification of each loss and in automatic OEE Production Monitoring Systems manual classification is considered cumbersome. Consequently the compromise is generally made that if the downtime duration is longer than, say, 5minutes the downtime is automatically classified as a Breakdown, otherwise the downtime is classified as a Short Stop.
       
    2. Changeovers:
      When a machine has broken down it is unavailable for production. In some OEE systems a machine is only considered to be ‘broken down’ if a technician is required to restart the machine. However this would require manual classification of each loss and in automatic OEE Production Monitoring Systems manual classification is considered cumbersome. Consequently the compromise is generally made that if the downtime duration is longer than, say, 5minutes the downtime is automatically classified as a Breakdown, otherwise the downtime is classified as a Short Stop. 

 

  • Performance Loss.
    Performance Loss is a general term for a loss occurring during production which reduces the performance of the machine. Performance Loss is sometimes also referred to as Speed Loss.

    1. Short Stops:
      When a machine is in production and it stops for a short period of time for a minor fault that the operator can correct in a few seconds, this is called a Short Stop. If an operator is operating more than one machine these Short Stops are highly significant. It may only take a few seconds to fix the machine, but if the operator is busy with another machine or taking a break, then the machine will be stopped for a significant amount of time. If these minor faults occur frequently, then over the course of a day the amount of time lost can accumulate quite rapidly. This is especially true where an operator is running a large number of machines as it will not be possible to keep them all running if there are a lot of minor faults happening simultaneously.
       
    2. Speed Loss(Slow Running):
      This loss is not usually apparent by simply looking at a machine. Generally when a machine is running and producing good parts, it may appear that all is well. However there may still be a loss occurring if the machine is operating below its designed speed. That is, if the machine is designed to produce 1000 parts per hour but for some reason is actually only producing 750 units per hour then it is only running at 75% of its capability and there is a 25% loss due to Slow Running.

 

  •  Quality Losses.
    Quality Loss is the general term for the time lost producing bad or reject parts.

    1. Yield Loss:
      When a machine produces a defect not only is the material used in producing the defect lost or in need of rework but the time and other resources used producing the piece are also wasted. A machine with ten defects per hundred is in effect only achieving a yield of ninety per cent of its capability.
       
    2. Start-up Loss:
      If a machine needs to be set up by doing some trial production then the material used is wasted. For example setting up a machine at the start of a shift could involve producing one or two test pieces and then making adjustments until the set up is perfect. The material lost and the time spent producing it are both wasted and again this is a problem. 

 

Key Implications:

  • Classifying the losses in terms of Availability, Performance and Quality helps to identify the nature of the most significant losses effecting production.
     
  • From knowing the nature of the most significant losses it becomes easier to identify the root causes and to implement strategies to eliminate the losses.
     
  • It’s only when you multiply the 3 elements, Availability, Performance Rate and Quality Rate together that you see the compound effect.
     
  • This compound effect often highlights a surprisingly aggressive erosion of OEE! (Remember that two fractions multiplied together will always result in a smaller fraction!)


Calculating OEE:

OEE may be expressed as a time value or as a percentage (rate). Below it is shown how to calculate the OEE value as either a time or a percentage.

Expressing OEE as a Time Value:

The figure below shows the losses occurring on a machine over a given time frame.

 

Fig. 2 OEE Time (click image to see full size).

    • Time Frame
      The period over which the OEE is to be calculated.
       
    • Planned Operating Time
      The amount of time for which it is planned that the machine should be producing good parts. It is the Time Frame less any planned downtime such as preventative maintenance or operator training etc.
       
    • Availability Loss
      The total amount of time for which the machine has been broken down or on changeover. 
       
    • Actual Operating Time
      The Planned Operating Time less the Availability Loss.
       
    • Performance Loss
      The combination of Short Stops and Slow Running.
       
    • Net Operating Time
      The Actual Operating Time less the Performance Loss.
       
    • Quality Loss
      The amount of time lost producing bad or reject parts. It is calculated by multiplying the number of reject parts by the optimum (design) machine cycle time.
       
    • OEE Time (Fully Productive Time)
      The total amount of time that the machine was operating at its optimum or designed rate. It is the Planned Operating Time less the Availability Loss, less the Performance Loss and less the Quality Loss. The OEE Time is also known as the Fully Productive Time.

 

Expressing OEE as a Percentage:

Which in graphical format can be represented by figure 3 below.

 

Fig. 3 OEE Time as Percentage (click image to see full size).

    • Availability (Rate)
      The percentage of time the machine is actually available to produce good parts. In other words, the Actual Operating Time (Planned Operating Time – Availability Loss) compared to the Planned Operating Time.


       

    • Performance (Rate)
      The Net Operating Time (Actual Operating Time – Performance Loss) compared to the Actual Operating Time.


       

    • Quality (Rate)
      The OEE Time (Net Operating Time – Quality Loss) compared to the Net Operating Time. The Quality Rate is equivalent to the Yield.


       

Interpreting OEE Values:

As you will see from figure 2, Availability, Performance and Quality Losses eat into the Planned Operating Time for the machine. The greater the losses the less output from the machine. The aim therefore is to keep these losses to a minimum.

This is equivalent to saying that the Availability, Performance and Quality Rate must be kept as high as possible.

If, for example, the Availability (Rate) is 0%, this means that the machine was either broken down or on changeover for the whole time period. Whereas if the Availability is 100% it means there were no breakdowns or changeover losses during the time period.

The key value is the percentage OEE. This indicates how well the machine is performing. The higher the value the better the machine is performing. An OEE of 100% indicates that there were no losses during the time period and that the machine was running at its optimum rate.

The OEE value that can be achieved for a particular machine will depend on a wide variety of factors but in general companies tend to aim for an OEE value of between 70 – 90%.

The purpose of separating losses into different categories is to help focus on the reasons and effects of the different types of losses. The reasons for breakdown losses are often for totally different reasons then reject losses.

Availability Losses will generally be related to poor machine reliability, bad maintenance or overloading the machine causing failure.

Performance Losses can often relate to material problems requiring the machine speed to be reduced, poor design requiring regular operator intervention for minor stoppages, poor operation due to insufficient operator training.

Quality Losses can be related to faulty raw material, or machine problems.

 

OEE Loss Levels:

There are three levels in the hierarchical OEE model of grouping losses.

Level 1 Losses are Availability, Performance and Quality losses.

Figure 4 shows a Pie chart type OEE Level 1 Loss Report. Each slice represents the fraction of Total Loss which is attributed to each category.

  Fig. 4: OEE Level 1 Pie Chart Report (click image to see full size).

 

Level 2 Losses are simply Level 1 Losses sub-divided by the six major losses defined above, Breakdowns, Changeover’s, Short Stops, Slow Running, Yield Losses and Start-up Losses.

Figure 5 shows a Pie chart type OEE Level 2 Loss Report. Again each slice represents the fraction of Total Loss which is attributed to each category.

  Fig. 5: OEE Level 2 Pie Chart Report (click image to see full size).

 

Level 3 Losses are the individual reasons for each Level 2 Loss. An example of a Level 3 Loss might be “jam on station 1” where this is a specific reason for the machine to stop – causing a loss.

Figure 6 shows OEE Level 3 Pie Chart Loss Report. Here each slice represents the fraction of Total Loss which is attributed to each individual loss reason.


  Fig. 6: OEE Level 3 Pie Chart Report (click image to see full size).

 

Using Provideam to identify and prioritise improvement activity.

Provideam provides the tools to analyse your production data to identify the real reasons for loss.  Thus you can focus improvement activities on the eliminating these ‘real’ losses.  Thereby ensuring that you do not waste time eliminating ‘perceived’ losses which are not actually significant in the overall productivity equation.

If you have any queries or would like further information, please do not hesitate to contact paul.mitchell@provideam.com

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